Views: 8 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-06-14 Origin: Site
Today, green alternative energy sources are becoming important. One alternative source of energy is wind. Today, Alpha science classroom is teaching children to Build a Wind Turbine through this environmental science experiment for kids, and helping them understand how wind turbines generate electricity from the wind. Children will design blades to find the one that produces the most energy and make the wind work for you! We believe that children will feel the power of technology and the meil of nature through this kid's science experiment!
Alpha science classroom: Build a Wind Turbine, materials needed
Tall 1 liter water bottle
500 ml short water bottle with cap
Marbles (about 50)
Printed paper (several sheets), cut into small pieces of 8 cm x 10 cm
Non-bendable straws (about 30-40 straws)
Several large paper clips (about 20)
String or thread
Small washers (3), see Figures 5, 6, and 7 in the "Procedure" tab for examples
Universal glue, such as Elmer's® Glue-All
Small fan, properly sized for the table
Drill with a 1/4-inch drill bit
Alpha science classroom: Build a Wind Turbine, experimental procedures
Step 1: First, the children make sure that both water bottles are dry and that the 1-liter bottle will become the tower and foundation for the wind turbine.
Step 2: The children carefully cut the neck of the bottle. Then cut a bracket from the top so that the smaller bottle can be accommodated when placed horizontally by cutting off two "sides" and leaving two "sides". For an example of how to cut a bottle, see
Step 3; The children will fill the water bottle with marbles and cut the nacelle to fit the smaller water bottle horizontally. The marbles are used as a weight to hold the bottle in place. Now that you have cut off the top of the 1-liter bottle, fill it up with your marbles. This makes the bottom of the tower very heavy, so the fan won't blow it over when you test the rotor later. Also, this way the bottle is both the tower and the foundation, as it holds the rest of the turbine up and securely in place on the ground.
Step 4: Now comes the nacelle, which will be made from a short water bottle. First, set the lid aside. Then you need to drill two holes in this bottle, so let an adult help you. You will need a hole in the middle of the lid and a hole in the middle of the bottom, both need to be large enough so that the straw can go through them and be able to move easily. Use a ¼-inch drill bit. Later, you will install the straws through both holes, and they need to be able to rotate easily in the holes. After drilling the holes, mount the nacelle in the tower The nacelle is mounted on the tower. The nacelle is mounted horizontally on the tower.
Building the rotor assembly: In this Environmental Science Experiment activity, you will test different types of rotors on a turbine. Each design has two rotors instead of three, just like on a real turbine, which is more difficult to build. Of course, you will want to create some basic designs, such as flat rotors, two rotors bent in the same direction, each rotor bent in the opposite direction, etc. Try to come up with some other ideas, such as rotors cut into circles, and serrated or triangular shapes. For examples of different rotor designs, the
Three different rotor designs
The children's rotors should all be made from the same size pieces of paper. This way, you will be able to control the differences between each rotor design and understand which differences make the rotor spin the most. The recommended size is 8 cm x 10 cm. For each design, you will need two sheets of this size. Cut out as many pairs of paper as you can to test your design; for example, if you have eight designs, cut out eight pairs of paper (16 squares in total).
Step 6: Children need to make the rotor look like wings. To make one, gently bend the paper so you can glue the two 10 cm edges together without wrinkling the paper. You will have a small wing that looks like a teardrop from the side. Do this for all the cut paper and make sure the rotors are organized in pairs.
Step 7: If you have rotor designs that should be cut, cut them before taping the ends together and then glue them together when they are the right shape. If you tape them before you cut them, then you will cut the tape edges.
Step 8: Now the kids will build the shaft, which will be made of straw and will spin when the wind is caught by the rotor blades. You will need a straw that is twice as long, so you will put the ends of the two straws together. This is done by pinching the end of one straw and then pushing the pinched end into the end of the other straw. When you do this, the first straw will reopen inside the second straw and get stuck inside. Make sure the double straws are long enough to go all the way through the cabin and will not separate easily.
Step 9: The children measure 10 cm from each end of the double straw and make a mark here with a permanent marker. You should only have two marks. These marks show the position of the rotor wing on the double straw.
Step 10: Children carefully apply a layer of glue to one end of the double straw, between the end and the 10 cm mark you made. This glue will keep the rotor wing on the straw. Carefully pass the end of the straw through one of the rotor wings and make sure it touches the glue. Place the rotor wing on the straw and let it dry for a few minutes.
Step 11: Kids While the first rotor wing is drying, repeat step 5 for the other end of the double straw. make sure the tape end point of the second rotor wing is facing the same direction as the tape end of the first rotor wing.
Step 12: The children will now attach another straw to the rotor assembly. This is the straw pointing downward on all the rotors in Figure 3, and it will act as part of the shaft, pulling the weight upward as the wind blows. This straw is held in place with tape and a paper clip.
Step 13: Using a pair of sharp-nosed pliers (with the help of an adult), the children carefully straighten one of the paper clips and then re-bend it into a "T" shape. Make sure the bottom of the "T" is thin enough to fit a straw.
Step 14: Now, glue this "T" shaped paper clip to the middle of the double straw with the rotor wings. Make sure that the arm of the "T" is taped to the double straw and that the bottom of the "T" is facing downwards in the exact same direction as the taped end of the rotor wing.
Now attach a straw to the bottom of the "T" paper clip and tape the straw to the double straw. Make sure that all the taped parts of this rotor assembly are strong - don't tape too much, but be sure to use enough tape to ensure that the parts are secure.
Step 15: Make a T-shape with a paper clip, insert the bottom of the T-shape into the double straw shaft, and secure the top of the T-shape to the rotor with tape.
Repeat steps 1-8 for each pair of rotors you have. it may seem like a lot of work at first, but after you have done it a few times, it will go smoothly and quickly.
Finally, the kids use the rotor assemblies that need to be bent for testing. They shouldn't look too different now (except for the ones you've cut into different shapes). In order for the rotors to work properly, you need to bend the rotor blades in the opposite direction. This is done by winding one rotor-wing clockwise and the other rotor-wing of the straw counterclockwise. Be careful here - make sure you are looking straight at the straw when deciding on a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. You must imagine a clock face at each end of the straw in order to bend the rotor wing in the correct direction. As you wrap each rotor-wing around the straw, hold it there for a minute and then release it. It will unfold but will bend into a curve. Be careful when bending!
Step 16: Make sure each rotor assembly has a different design - in other words, make sure no two rotor assemblies are exactly the same. For example, in Figure 3, all three wings bend in the same way, but have different designs - one has a normal-sized rotor wing, one has a larger rotor wing, and one has a cut rotor wing. If you wish to have a larger rotor wing, see the "Variants" section below these instructions.
Build the axle and complete the nacelle
To demonstrate the efficiency of your rotor design, the turbine needs an axle that will rotate with the rotor assembly and haul the weight to the tower. You have already built half of the axle - the "T" shaped bottom of each rotor assembly. Each assembly will be inserted into the nacelle through a hole in the cap and will be connected to another straw that is inserted into the nacelle through a hole on the other side.
Step 17: For the children to make the other half of the shaft, bend the outer ring of the paper clip so that it looks like the paper clip in Figure 5. Make a small cut near the end of the straw so you can insert the paperclip - the cut must be small, not large. Insert the extended end of the paperclip and tape it to the pipette so it stays in place well and does not move easily. You need to have the extra stability that the slit provides because you will be hanging heavy objects from it and the tape itself is not strong enough to hold the clip to the shaft.
Attaching a paper clip with rope and washer
Step 18: Next, cut a piece of string approximately equal to the height of the tower and tie it to the paperclip using a double knot, as shown in Figure 5. Pick up the washer and double knot it to the other end of the rope. You have completed the second half of the axle - this will be used for each test, and the rotor assembly will be changed to test each design.
You will now attach the axle, thus completing the wind turbine build.
Step 19: Take the straw that you just taped to the paper clip and pinch the other end of it, just as you did in step 4 of building the rotor assembly. Hold it closed for a minute or so so that it bends that way and does not open too quickly.
Step 20: Next, insert this end into the hole in the bottom of the small water bottle (nacelle). At the same time, insert the "T" end of one of the rotor assemblies into the cap hole at the front of the nacelle. Now, carefully insert the straw from the bottom of the nacelle into the rotor straw, just like the straw in step 4 of building the rotor assembly. This step can be tricky because you are trying to attach them to the nacelle. Keep trying until you get it right. If needed, remove the straws from the bottom of the water bottle and flatten the ends further to fit the rotor straws.
Note: As you test each design, you will be disconnecting the rotor assembly and reconnecting it to the other rotor assembly, so make sure you know how to connect the two straws in the nacelle!
You have now built the entire wind turbine. It should look similar to the example in Figure 6 below. There are a few things to double-check.
Make sure you can easily rotate the shaft (the two straws connected in the nacelle). Do this by gently turning the rotor with your fingers. If the shaft does not turn well, then you may need to remove the straws and have an adult enlarge the holes at the ends of the nacelle.
Also, make sure the washers are hanging from the nacelle and not resting on the ground. If so, you can place the entire turbine on a book to make it higher.
Make sure the gasket is not so heavy that it pulls too much on the paperclip or pulls the shaft apart inside the nacelle.
Fully assembled wind turbine model
Figure 6. Fully assembled wind turbine model.
Test rotor design
Clear the space on the table or counter. Make sure there is nothing around that can be blown away by the small fan. Set up the fan so that it is facing directly toward the wind turbine. Pretend it is windy and make sure the wind is blowing directly into the rotor. If the turbine is not high enough, place it on top of a few short books until the fan can blow directly into it.
Once you have set up the fan and turbine, turn the fan on to the lowest speed. If the rotor assembly starts spinning, it's working! If it doesn't, you may need a higher airspeed. Try each speed on the fan until you find a workable speed. If the turbo still does not work, try repositioning the fan to make sure it is blowing directly onto the rotor. Also, check all the parts on the turbine - does the shaft in the nacelle spin easily? Is the washer too heavy?
As you determine the best speed for the fan and set it at the proper height to blow directly into the rotor, write down all the setup details in your lab notebook and use the same settings for each test.
Your goal for each test is to determine how much weight each rotor design can haul all the way up the tower. For each design, use only one washer at first. See Figure 7 to see the towed washer - the string should be wrapped around the paperclip and bring the washer to the shaft. Next, tie a second washer to the string and see if the rotor can pull on it. If so, tie on a third washer, and so on, if you need more washers.
When your turbine can no longer haul washers, you should continue to experiment with paper clips. Remove only the last washer you added (which made it too heavy) and tie the other washers to the rope. Then, add paper clips (five at a time) to the string and test again. Continue adding paper clips until the turbine cannot handle more weight. Record the maximum number of washers and paperclips your turbine can haul.
Repeat steps 4-5 two more times - make sure to keep adding weight until you get the most out of your turbine! For each rotor design, you will need to run 3 trials of the maximum amount to prove that it is indeed the maximum for a given wind speed. Test this each time by adding more paper clips and making sure it can't drag them. When you are confident that the rotor design performs equally well in the three maximum weight tests, record the average maximum weight in your lab notebook.
You will now test the new rotor design. Remove the rotor assembly from the nacelle and insert a new one, taking care to ensure that the shaft suction tube is inserted into the rotor suction tube. Repeat steps 4-6 to find the maximum number of washers and paper clips that can be pulled by the second rotor design, then test the maximum number twice more to ensure that the average is calculated at the end. Repeat these tests for all rotor designs.
Which design pulls the most paperclips and washers? If you have ties, test each by adding one paperclip at a time instead of five at a time. Which design is best for a real wind turbine? Why do you think it is the best?
Alpha science classroom: Build a Wind Turbine, Science Principles
Today, the need for reliable energy has many people talking about wind power. Wind power is collected using a wind turbine - a tall pole structure with a machine on top that looks like a very large fan. However, instead of blowing air, the turbine captures it. When the wind blows, it causes fan blades called rotors to spin, which moves the turbine around inside and generates electricity. Basically, the wind does work on the turbine as it makes it a spin. The work is the application of energy, which moves something. The energy generated by wind power is absorbed by the turbine and converted into electricity for use in homes and cities.
How does the shape of a wind turbine rotor allow it to spin easily in the wind? Is it because of the aerodynamic properties of the rotor - its shape and curvature? In this science fair project, you will investigate the efficiency of a turbine rotor by building a small model of a turbine and several rotors, changing their shape and curvature. You will determine the efficiency by measuring the energy used in the working output. The wind turbine model will work with less weight by dragging it from the ground to the top of the turbine. This will represent the energy output of the wind turbine. You will measure the output of each rotor design by how much weight can be hauled - the rotor that hauls the most weight is the most efficient design. What are you waiting for? Let's make it work!
Green replaceable energy in the 22nd century is valued by different countries, such energy can not only protect the environment but also continue to help human society better, this is what Alpha science classroom wants children to understand the purpose of energy technology, children can build environmental thinking from childhood through this environmental science experiment activity so that the future life of the earth becomes more green and constant, this is the charm of kid's science experiment activity.